Welding is quite an intimidating work among professionals and enthusiasts. And welders have no less craftsmanship compared to others as they can literally transform metal pieces into different shapes and designs using a few tools and, of course, the metal.
People are taking welding as a profession, earning a good amount of money. It requires observations and assistance of the professional steel fabricators to master welding. If you feel interested in taking welding as a profession, first, you have to be familiar with this work.
Technological advancement also changed the way people used to weld in the early decades. There are 30 different welding types, but 6 of those are the fundamental ones that I’m going to discuss in this article.
Different Types of Welding Process
I have listed only 8 types of welding, which will give you enough idea about all types of metal fabrications. The rest of the welding types are based on these primary types.
Primary 4 Types of Welding
The primary types of welding are explained below:
1. MIG – Metal Inert Gas Welding
This is the easiest type of welding, which is primarily performed by many DIY enthusiasts as well as hobby welders. If you are to learn how to weld, this is where you need to start.
MIG is also known as Gas Metal Arc welding. This welding process includes a shielding gas with a wire electrode for heating metals and joining them. It requires a direct-current power source along with a constant voltage. The process feeds filler metal through the wand.
It’s not ideal for outdoor welding. However, MIG is versatile when it comes to deal with metals of different types and thicknesses. There is a consumable wire that is fed using a spool, which is known as the electrode. It makes the wire melt when the tip of the wire creates an arc.Check our buying guideline of best 110v mig welder reviews and best 220v mig welder reviews.
- Easy to learn
- High welding speeds are available
- Less welding mess
- Provides much better control for thinner metals
- Welders can quickly learn flux-core welding as well
2.Flux-Cored Arc Welding
Similar to MIG, the flux-cored welding process involves wire feeding as well. But the process uses a flux-cored wire instead of shield gas to protect the arc. So, there will be no issue while welding outdoors and in windy conditions. Due to the high welding speed of this process, it is most commonly used for constructions.
FCAW suits best on heavier and thicker metals as it offers a high-heat welding advantage. As there is no need for external gas, this welding process is quite inexpensive. The amount of mess is also quite low, similar to MIG.
- Handles heavier, thicker, dirty, and rusty metals well
- Convenient out-of-position welding
- Deep penetration into thicker metals
- The metal deposition rate is high
3.TIG Welding – Tungsten Arc Welding
Also known as GTAW- Gas Tungsten Arc Welding, the process involves electrode, which is made of tungsten, and it’s non-consumable. TIG welding can be done without the need for filler metal as it primarily welds two metals together. So, adding filler is optional here. You can feed by hand or leave it as it is.
It requires a tank gas to provide a constant flow of gas for welding. So, like most gas-powered welding processes, it suits best for indoors. Keep the welding away from elements to work without any interruption.
The precision of welding creates appealing welds without any need for cleaning-up. TIG welding requires more experienced welders to perform flawlessly.
- Highest quality welds
- Precise at welding thinner metals
- Aesthetic welding beads
- High strength weld
4.Stick – Shielded Metal Arc Welding (SMAW)
Although this welding process was first introduced in the 1930s, it is updated with mechanical improvement. The process is easy to learn, and low cost compared to others.
Here, the process requires electrode sticks to act as a filler metal. When the stick is connected to the base metals, an arc is created. The flux material on the stick makes gas and cloud during heating up to protect the metal from oxidation. Metal becomes slag once the gas settles on it.
As there is no need for gas, the welding can also be done outdoors and in windy weather. Great for repairing works, this welding works on dirty, rusted, and painted surfaces. Stick welding isn’t ideal for thin metals, the process requires skilled and experienced welders.
- Ideal for outdoor and windy conditions
- Works well on dirty, rusted, and painted metals
- Ideal for thicker metals
Other Welding Types
Some less-notable welding types are mentioned below:
The welder fires high-velocity beam electrons to the metal that transforms heat, and makes the metal melt, fuse, and coalesce together. Electrons here create high heat using kinetic energy to weld two metals.
This highly sophisticated welding process is performed by vacuum. Industries such as automotive, aircraft, etc. use this type of welding for their precise works.
And the process also fuses dissimilar metals with a variety of thermal conductivities and melting points. These metals don’t fuse together perfectly with other welding processes.
6.Laser Beam Welding
As the name goes, the process uses a laser as a heat source for creating welds. Primarily, laser beam welding is done on stainless steels, carbon steels, aluminum, titanium, and HSLA steels. This welding process can be done with robotics; thus, mostly used in the automotive manufacturing industry.
7.Plasma Arc Welding
Similar to GTAW, plasma welding uses arc, but a smaller one to maintain the precision of welds. The process uses a torch to achieve higher temperatures.
When gas is forced inside the welds, it creates plasma. Ionizing the plasma makes it electrically conductive. Then it creates an arc to produce an extremely high temperature to melt the base metals. That’s why plasma welding doesn’t require any filler metals.
8.Atomic Hydrogen Welding
This welding process involves incredibly high-heat temperature, which is known as arc-atom welding. It uses hydrogen gas to make a shield for tungsten made two electrodes. Atomic hydrogen welding doesn’t require filler metal as the temperature reaches above an acetylene torch.
AHW has been an older form of welding, which has been replaced by MIG now.
Hopefully, the article was beneficial for you to learn the basics of different types of welding process. If you are to perform welding, start with a type that is less expensive and easier to do. Be sure to seek assistance from a professional welder, you cannot level up the welding skill without a mentor.
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